Systems and Analytics
Economic truck transport is performed non-profit by the entity for their own needs, regardless of the type of business. Discover everything you need to make faster, smarter, and more cost-effective products at the most comprehensive event in North America. It is transport that adds value to the company products, creating the utility of time and place, as a result of the physical movement of goods as added value to appointed place at a given time9. The condition of the vehicle route designation for an oversized vehicle is the technical condition of the road, meeting the following requirements
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Exceeding the accepted mass of the loaded set or exceeding the accepted external size e. In road transport, the means used for carrying oversized cargo are trailers and semi- trailers of different construction. They may be divided into several groups The process of carrying a huge load needs to be organized perfectly. Carrying out such undertaking, the company must choose the ideal transport route, the trail-and-tractor itself is also very important here.
To this, adds the placing of particular elements and one of the most important things - the project of lashing For such transport, adequate permissions are necessary, along with agreements made with the persons who manage the areas through which the transport is to be moving. Economy of 22 June on the authorization for the passage of oversize vehicles, authorization shall be granted as follows: Permissions in categories III and IV, at the entrance of an oversized vehicle onto the territory of the Republic of Poland, may be issued by the head of the customs office, basing on an oral declaration from the applicant or a person authorized, on paying the fee for the license.
The condition of the vehicle route designation for an oversized vehicle is the technical condition of the road, meeting the following requirements The authority competent to issue the permit specifies the conditions for the pass of an oversized vehicle, basing on the following criteria: When using transport of non-standard size and mass, one needs to remember to pilot them while moving on a public road, with one or two specially prepared vehicles A vehicle which exceeds at least one of the following values: The piloting vehicle should be equipped in Means of truck transport designed to carry oversized cargo may be divided into motor and towed vehicles.
A tractor is equipped to tow a semi-trailer such sets are universal. A tractor-trailer may carry various loads, depending on the semi-trailer type. An element responsible for linking these two parts of the set is a road saddle. Using this element allows to improve the manoeuvrability of the whole set, while maintaining safety during operation.
Another group of motor vehicles used for the transport of oversize cargo ballast are motor vehicles, also known as ballast tractors. It is a kind of ox truck with a strong frame and suspension, which has a ballast box.
With appropriate ballast applied, it may carry trailers with particularly heavy loads, also used for transport on its own suspension For transportation of oversized cargo, the following semi-trailers are used: In rail transport the most important restriction is the vertical and horizontal loading gauge.
The loading gauge is the maximum distance of two mutually perpendicular surfaces that is required by the carrier, of which one is led tangentially to the heads of the rails, and the other passes through the longitudinal axis of the track perpendicular to the cross-section of the surface of the delivered package, resting on a wagon standing on an empty horizontallyoriented track.
Due to the gauge, rail transport cannot take the loads that are too high or wide. The loading gauge, otherwise known as profile or scale, of the European Rail wagons of the same track width - mm - is not unified.
Polish Railways require the following parameters Approved for all lines of railway management, with the exception of the British railway, is the so-called international gauge with the following parameters: Shipments with exceeded gauge, otherwise known as extraordinary shipments are things that due to their shape, size, weight or route of shipment need to be transported in a special way.
The manager is the one to decide if the delivery qualifies as extraordinary. When preparing to organize transportation of oversized cargo by rail, most focus is put on the following factors When dealing with such type of cargo, the sea port infrastructure should be characterized by the following factors Inland waterway transportation is also used for cargo the parameters of which exclude the possibility for these goods to be transported by rail or road at long distances.
In Europe, the whole infrastructure of inland rivers and channels is being used. In shipping heavy and oversized loads using inland waterways means of transport, the main and basic factor is the harbor infrastructure. The hydro-technical objects, such as locks and weirs are of special significance. They determine the handling capacity for heavy and oversized loads. Each transport of oversized cargo requires drafting a transport plan, including the need to establish the following: In Poland, there are many companies which offer full transport service for oversized cargo, including inland water transport.
Among other things,, they offer33, The air means of transport are regarded as least versatile of all. Currently there are not many units specialised for carriage of particular goods. Planes cannot carry bulk and halfbulk cargo, liquid or oversized loads or non-standard size containers. Because of this, goods most frequently carried by planes are general loads. It is best if they are transported in huge batches, in boxes, crates, containers or bags.
Usually, the cargo is not transported loose, but consolidated in bigger package. Aircraft has loading capacity of 20 to 80 tons, depending on the plane construction and range.
We distinguish narrow and wide beam aircraft. The biggest loading capacity characterizes the plains fitted with special equipment, such as rollers for loading and unloading. The handling devices are activated by the operator. Additionally, transportation aircraft carries formed consignment which can be placed in air containers or on special palettes. Inconveniences in air transport are related to the cargo dimensions: Transportation of dangerous goods.
Transportation of dangerous goods37 is regulated by acts of law, regulations and ordinances which also account for international legal; requirements.
In Poland, these documents are: Hazardous materials undergo classification into 13 classes. Each of the materials has its own four-letter entry with the UN number, and is assigned to one of four packaging groups PG. Materials and objects belonging to class to excluding aerosols are assigned to one of the following groups according to their hazardous properties: Class 3- flammable liquids; includes materials and items that: Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms including bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, parasites, fungi , or recombinant microorganisms hybrids or mutants , which are known or are reasonably suspected to cause infectious diseases in humans or animals.
For the needs of the above-mentioned class, viruses, microorganisms and contaminated items should be considered as materials within that class.
The title of the above-mentioned class includes also materials which form a corrosive liquid only in the presence of water or that produce corrosive vapour or mist to the natural atmospheric moisture. These are substances and articles which, during carriage pose a threat other than the materials described in other classes; they divide into the following: When transporting hazardous goods, one must remember to: Company name is in honor of Rolf Maximilian Sievert.
Transport units carrying dangerous goods shall be marked with orange-coloured plates. Vehicles carrying dangerous goods in bulk or in tanks should have additional plates with threat number. Also, checking if the cargo is well-packed, whether the vehicle is not overloaded and if it is properly marked, as well as if the driver had the proper equipment it is the responsibility of the shipper. On the territory of the Republic of Poland and the European Union, transportation of dangerous goods is associated with obligatory possession of the following documents: The document must contain the following information: Transport infrastructure and sustainable development In the first part of the title chapter, we deal with two words: The notion of infrastructure is commonly used; however there is not one clear definition of it.
The word itself may come from: Polish sources define infrastructure as: The notion of transport is defined as: Basing on this definition and others accessible in professional literature, we may specify the concept, namely that transport infrastructure means the basic permanently sited, 41 http: Transport infrastructure plays a variety of roles to which we may include, among others Infrastructure as the base of transportation is closely linked with the remaining elements of transportation systems — transport means, transport technologies and the latest achievements in this respect, with attention paid to both national and international requirements.
The development of modern infrastructure needs to meet the challenges of sustainable development of transport. Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource-efficient transport system.
These expectations, are so that: Also The European satellite navigation system Galileo will be operational; 49 SESAR — Single European Sky ATM Research — Single European Sky aims to contribute to the increase in the level of civil aviation safety, operational efficiency improvement increase airspace capacity and reduction of individual costs as well as the reduction the impact of aviation on the environment, http: Both systems are essential components of European policy on removing barriers to transportation, both in terms of technical barriers in railway networks within the borders of the EU and the creation of a common market for products and services on the other hand http: Land transport infrastructure rail, road, inland transportation The infrastructure of land transport is the most important of the technical infrastructure in every country.
It embodies the basis of transport companies functioning, as well as transportation for individual needs including individual automotive vehicles. By its nature, this infrastructure should be public accessible to various users. It consists of a set of urban structures, buildings and other permanently localized technical objects, along with the structures that govern them and constitute a platform which conditions or facilitates the movement of transportation means within the transportation system Generally, the infrastructure of inland transport may be divided into: Rail transport The rail infrastructure includes the following components, provided they form a part of track, including sidings service but not the tracks in railway repair workshops, depots or locomotive and local private railway lines and sidings This means that one fourth of the railway tracks qualify for immediate renovation.
Rail networks are divided into lines of national and local importance. Through the territory of Poland, go lines of crucial importance for international rail transit. The main managers of the railway lines are The length of AGC railways in Poland is km.
The agreement itself is the agreed plan of development and operation of international combined transport lines and related installations that is intended to be implemented within the national programs; as per http: The basic financial resource for infrastructure maintenance comes from the charges levied for the use of the infrastructure.
In recent times, owing to the priorities set by the European Union, the state allocates increasingly more funds in railway infrastructure investments Fig. Logistyka w Polsce, raport [Logistics in Poland; the report] I. Despite the fact that the process of rail infrastructure degradation would significantly outweigh the reconstruction and renovation capacity presented by the infrastructure manager, as well as the capacity of design companies there were 8 of them, most of them closed and executive companies, many investments are being planned within the infrastructure as well, including: Road transport The road infrastructure includes the following components: Poland is one of the countries with the least developed network of express roads and highways in Europe.
Despite the fact that their length has been steadily growing in , as compared with , the length of highways has risen by half, while the length of express roads has doubled , their share in the general number of roads was negligible 0. In road transport, in the years — almost km of highways were opened and km of express roads, while another over km of highways and km of express roads is already under construction Fig.
The central location of Poland towards other European countries creates transit possibilities for our country and evokes the necessity to build a functional road system as an indispensable element in the modern transport system of Europe.
The total general length of public roads in the end of would be km longer by 5. The general density of hard surface roads in would be One should note however that after years of standstill we are witness to dynamic development of the road infrastructure, which allows to hope that in the current decade we will get close to the EU standards In the following years, the road-builders plan to build fewer highways and more express roads. By the end of there are expected to be km, including km of highways.
The objective for Poland is km of highways and km of express roads Inland waterway transport The inland waterway infrastructure includes: The Polish navigable route network covers km over the decreased by km. The length and density of waterways as compared with some EU countries is shown in Figure 3.
The length of inland waterways in Poland and bordering countries in km Source: Polish waterways do not create a uniform system of communication, but a collection of separate and qualitatively different shipping routes. The most efficient aquatic thoroughfare in Poland is the Oder Waterway along with Gliwicki and Kedzierzynski channels.
Vistula due to fragmentary civil engineering objects development has best exploitation-related parameters in its channeled upper part from the estuary of the river Przemsza to the Przewoz water level change and in its low part, from Plock to Wloclawek water level change and down from Tczew to the estuary of the Gdansk Bay.
The most important inland waterway ports for goods handling include The transport function of Oder is fulfilled with varying density, caused mainly by unsatisfactory technical condition of its many parts between Szczecin and Kedzierzyn-Kozle.
One of the factors limiting inland waterway traffic is the construction of Oder bridges, some of which have too low clearances as compared to the highest navigable water level. The issue of clearance size is especially important for the future inland transport of containers. According to the Regulation of the Cabinet on the inland waterways classification of May 7 , waterways by range are divided into: For comparison, the water route ratio of category IV and V, as compared to the remaining waterway network is in It is 6 to 14 times more than in Poland.
On average, waterway transportation in the EU countries concerns 7. The air transport infrastructure The air transport infrastructure is significantly different from the land transport one, as it lacks the material surface routes. In the light of the international classification, this infrastructure consists of linear and point elements adapted to movements specific for aircraft and the specificity of passengers transportation and customer service.
The point infrastructure may generally be divided into The line infrastructure includes equipment necessary to ensure traffic for airlines and Air Navigation Services — ANS. The ANS includes the following infrastructure: Due to the growth of air traffic in Poland, there is a growing demand to increase the space volume. To meet these requirements, there will be a new air traffic management system needed, that would be effective and compatible with the European one.
APC - Approach Control. Investments in the above-mentioned area should focus on The sea transport - shipping infrastructure The infrastructure of sea transport infrastructure enables the use of marine waters by vessels carrying freight and passengers between points located on the coast. It is a natural 69 FAB - Functional Airspace Block — is an area of airspace based on operational requirements, ensuring integrated management of airspace regardless of existing boundaries.
In maritime transport, there are two basic types of infrastructure, such as linear and point infrastructure. The shipping line infrastructure are mainly The point infrastructure includes The sea transport system in Poland, comprising mainly ports and maritime fleet of floating, is an essential component of the Polish maritime sector. Small ports, such as Kolobrzeg, Darlowo, Ustka, Leba, Wladyslawowo or Hel, due to infrastructure constraints and technical parameters meet a minor role in the maritime business.
The competitiveness of Polish ports in the port services market of the southern Baltic is determined the basic parameters of port infrastructure port area, the length of the quays, the permissible parameters of ships , as well as their land connections with the hinterland and the sea-land connections with the foreland. The comparison of the basic parameters of the Polish and foreign ports infrastructure the direct competitors within the Baltic Sea area and the transshipment offer indicates that Polish ports are not much different from the other ports in the South Baltic area.
The major problem, however, is the need to improve the capacity of infrastructure and access to Polish ports in terms of auxiliaries and support. A significant role in the infrastructure of the seaports is played by the container terminals used in intermodal transport. The container terminals are equipped in specialist devices facilitating intermodal transport, which is exemplified in Table 3. Neider, Polskie porty morskie [Polish Seaports].
University of Gdansk Publishing House, Gdansk , p. Przybylski, Masa krytyczna [Critical Mass], [in: Liebherr Container Cranes Ltd, capacity: Liebherr Container Cranes Ltd; capacity: Maritime transport fleet Specification Vessels Cargo vessels including bulk 96 95 carriers and 79 76 66 67 tankers 7 13 13 11 Ferries 8 7 11 11 Passenger vessels - 2 3 3 Ships to carry: Universal, tanks, insulated, refrigerated, platforms flat-rack , etc.
The ro-ro ramp and adjacent storage areas allow for of rolling and untypical cargo including oversized and heavy loads The number of the Polish merchant fleet remains on the same level for several years now, as shown by Table 3. In the year , over 20 vessels entered the trade seaports, of overall net capacity of 62 NT. The details are presented in Table 3. The active role of Polish seaports in the realization of European land-sea transport chains is the requirement of the EU transport policy and needs to be strengthened steadily.
The seaports naturally function as international logistics distribution centers are based primarily on intermodal transport systems. An important condition for the effectiveness of port investments is primarily comprehensive development of the inland ports, with simultaneous stimulation of modern investments in the ports themselves, both in the aquatorium and the port territory as such.
The investment plans of Polish seaports are mainly related to the construction of modern cargo-handling terminals, especially for general cargo and container, as well as for bulk and liquid fuels. The modern seaport infrastructure requires excellent communication from the land side, based on railway, road, inland waterway, air and transmission transport.
The network of on-land connections for Polish seaports should not only support national economy, but also should be adapted for handling mass transit cargo of the neighboring countries which not have access to the sea The basic problems of the currently-existing, in most cases outdated infrastructure, include After years of standstill, we are witness to dynamic development of road infrastructure, which allows to hope that we would reach the EU standards in the current decade.
It is unfortunate that TFL means, first and foremost, road freight and not rail, sea or inland waterway transport , which not consistent with the objectives of the White Paper of Measures applied in transport When one wants to know the value of any economic system, it is enough to ask about a few basic measures or indices, as it is common knowledge that: In economic terms, a meter reflects events and facts concerning the management of the company, along with in its environment, and is expressed in units of measurement.
Thus, the measure is a particular number characterizing certain phenomena, providing the measure that allows comparing it with other phenomena. Work measures for transport may be divided into three groups The indices, also in transport, are required to: The solution to this problem is always subjective to a degree. A measure in economics may be defined as 90, The qualities of a good index are the following Classification of indices in transport 90 J.
Depending on the need or the approach to the adopted management concept, the analyzed indices need to refer to a different variable which may be time, surface, profit, number of kilometers covered etc. Overall, transport-forwarding company indices93 can be divided into An interesting and modern summary of meters and indices is presented in a publication by M.
The Logistics System of Poland — the technical and technological conditions of transport modality95 Table 4. Selected indices and measures for the assessment of transport modality work structure — transport work related No. Selected indices and measures for the assessment of transport comodality work structure — transport infrastructure-related: This index may be transport used for international solutions. It is equivalent to the volume of the container with a length of 20 feet.
Jacyna ed System Logistyczny Polski… op. Production and cost — related indices of given transport modes The analysis and presented values will be related to bus transport; they may be modified to be applied with other transport modes. The start data for cost calculation are: For the analysis of fleet use, the following indexs are applied: All the presented indices may be analyzed in relation to individual costs and investigate their correlation at random.
In this case, it is useful to compare the current indexs with the planned ones and those from the past. To assess the impact of capacity use on the individual costs level one needs to modify formula 1. To achieve that, one needs to replace Q with the dependence: This will give us a pattern 2, which shows that the bigger capacity use the lower the cost.
Own study, based on materials obtained in PKS Sieradz Transport is regarded as one of the more important systems in economy and hence the measurement and assessment of its elements is crucial.
Literature on the subject provides many different variants of indices, which is pictured, among others, by annex 4.
The measures and other indices used in practice depending on the needs that have been presented in the previous chapter are most often obtained, collected, analyzed, stored and shared by IT systems. The commercial market, offers different kinds of software, depending on the company size, that support transport management, presenting visual values expressed by data, information, measures and indices.
The task of the system is to coordinate the majority of issues related to work done in in transport and exploitation departments of railway companies. The system is characterized by the possibility to work on multiple workstations and the centralized architecture with the use of remote access through the application server.
It supports the following sections of transport-related activity: Types of companies In knowledge-based economy, a company including one dealing with transport should be seen in a little different, wider aspect than previously, as there appear other, more modern organization forms; e.
The traditional company is described as a set of tangible and financial factors of production organized and coordinated in order to carry out activities relating to the production of goods and provision of services — and thus an economic undertaking — and also creating this way new values that all together create the national income.
This last element differentiates a company from a household, which is the other subject of the real economy sphere that is only a beneficiary of goods and services manufactured by an enterprise. The characteristic features of a company are their independences: The condition and position of a company on the market including the transport-related one depends on such factors as Fig.
The scientific and technological progress, especially IT and communications of the turn of the 21st century, along with the socio-economic changes, in a significant way change the methods, ways and forms of running economic activity.
It allows network companies to emerge, i. They constitute a new organization form, operating in accordance with new principles that require a different approach to management, at the same time creating fundaments for global network economy development.
The existence of network will slowly but surely change the organizational forms, and this process will note the following stages Elements of good location of a company Source: Own study Table 5. Own study The most important features of the network organization, which do not occur in such intensity in other forms of mutual cooperation of economic entities, include among others: In literature, one may encounter different classifications of network enterprises.
Brilman distinguished four main network types Network organization is broader than network company where the primary goal is profit-related activities. The concept of network company does not include non - profit organizations.
Depending on the dynamic reconfiguration of the participating partners, we can distinguish the following three types of network organization Fig. Most often it is characterized by relatively long network link between the creator and the other partners.
The role of the creator is primarily managing contacts with individual suppliers. Configuration of the participants in this type of network varies depending on market needs. The relationships of this type there is a high degree of autonomy of its members, working together on informal links. Types of network organizations in the context of reconfiguration dynamics Source: One also encounters internal network organizations involving parent company organizational units.
Virtual enterprises are one of the most modern enterprise collaboration platforms. In the era of increasing globalization of the economy raises a number of new, previously unknown and non-occurring organizational and managerial problems.
One of them is to ensure consistency of the dispersed economic systems, by means of brand new coordination mechanisms that are subject people oriented to a lesser degree. Until this day, there have been very many different definitions of virtual organizations, oftentimes very varied ones. Generally, there are two approaches: In the first case, the organization is defined as In turn, the functional process approach, most suitable for our discussion, the following definition was adopted: To understand the concept of a virtual organization, it is helpful to find out the ideal features of the virtual organization, as follows The 4PL suppliers often derive from 3PL companies, however their activity has a much wider range, precisely as regards IT services and business process management.
In the 4PL module, essentially there is an 3PL - Third Party Logistics, Third-party logistics is the most common form of logistics outsourcing external logistics , performed by highly skilled professional logistics operators with the right skills, physical resources, skilled human resources staff and modern technical equipment.
The 3PL methodology can be implemented in a medium or large enterprise, not focusing on logistics as a major area of activity, where the logistics costs are so high that contracting a third party to perform the functions of logistics is cost-effective.
A service supplier of 4PL type is in fact the integrator of logistics processes. They are responsible for making agreements with all suppliers of 2PL and 3PL. The company that uses the 4PL services is in touch with only one operator, which in turn manages and integrates all kinds of resources and supervises all functions across the entire supply chain The 5PL model is another step in the development of complete integration of logistics. The 5PL fifth-party logistics subjects are service providers of integrated logistics services, including transport.
They are able to implement and develop flexible network supply chains to meet the needs of all partners, including producers, suppliers, carriers and buyers. The 5PL service providers manage the supply chain on the strategic level and concentrate on providing logistics solutions throughout the entire supply chain.
One may come across 5PL model interpretations where it is emphasized that the companies working within the 5PL model originate from the previous levels of logistics and have been created to support the ecommerce market. Those companies of 3PL and 4PL modules are regarded as 5PL providers which manage all the electronic trade supply chain links by themselves. The 5PL organizations are almost entirely virtual, as not possessing typical assets they focus on gaining skills necessary for management and coordination of operations carried out by other service-providers via dedicated information solutions.
They also connect the demand and supply parties via electronic markets of logistics services. The main tasks of 5PL entities are supply chain mapping and reengineering, 4PL functions integration and control of transport, loading, storage etc.
The objective of 5PL is also to adjust particular supply chains to operate in a shared network managed on strategic level by one entity A specific kind of a virtual enterprise is Freight Exchange, where one may, in real time, place or find a vehicle or cargo, contact the customer and make service agreements. The entire operation may resemble auction bids.
Freight exchange uses the Internet as its network. These services are provided by external suppliers, such as transportation companies, providing services of handling or storage, in a relatively narrow range.
The main reason for using a 2PL providers are striving to reduce operating costs and avoid costly capital investment, A. In Europe, there are over a dozen services that facilitate communication and speed up transactions in the transportation industry. Freight exchange market is a place where: Thanks to a database containing manufacturing or training companies along with everyone who uses transport services, it is easy to find a customer who would like to use transport service.
It is also an offer for small businesses and individual carriers. Thanks to the database including an unlimited number of carriers and cars ready to take up the cargo, they are able to find the transport they need, by themselves. They may also have the task done by a transport company that would do it in a professional manner, hoping for further cooperation in the future.
Thanks to the registration of the company in the service, the customer has the possibility to quickly find the carrier after logging into the freight exchange service, without the need to make tens of calls and searching through the ads.
Finding the cargo quickly, more extended possibilities to choose the customer, current information about places where there is the biggest demand for transport, as well as the knowledge of the obstacles on the road will allow to introduce the company to the old, but how accurate saying: The European freight exchange available on-line includes: Organization of transport companies The title of this subchapter contains three words: Under this term, we may understand The second word, company is described as: When we combine the essence and content of the terms: Analyzing the proposed definition of the organization of transport, one comes to the following conclusions: The organizational structure which is a system that determines how the activities of the organization are divided, grouped and coordinated, is built based on four elements The organizational structure is one of the basic conditions of efficient company management.
The first solutions in this respect appeared already in ancient times, and developed as late as the XIX century. This period is called the classical period of development of organizational structures. The twentieth and early twenty-first century are the times of emergence and development of structures that would meet with the requirements of the J.
Gilbert Jr, Kierowanie [eng. Management], PWN, Warsaw , pp. The structures are adapting to new methods and tools that are used in efficient management of economic systems. The modern and frequently used concepts philosophies of management include The new ones, on the contrary, are often organized and applied only for a certain period of time to achieve given objectives, as in case of e.
Ciesielski, Logistyka — problemy rozwoju dyscypliny praktycznej [Logistics — the problems of practical discipline development], [in: A characteristic feature of Six Sigma is that it allows the capture and fully identify errors before they happen.
This concept allows to explore all of the undertaking processes such as: Thus, 4PL coordinates the implementation of logistics processes occurring along the entire supply chain of its customers, from suppliers of raw materials to final customers, not just on the specific episode, as is the case with 3PL.
Viewing the issue from the classic point of view, there are three different types of organizational structures: In the line structure, there are two types of positions: The manager may manage a given number of workers. On higher levels, the manager is managing the lower-level managers.
Every employee in the organization has only one superior, thus reducing the possibility of conflicting commands. In vertical communication the manager-the employees and the other way around the so-called business procedure is used. In this case, it means that the information is passed through via all subsequent management levels.
Therefore, if an employee wants to pass on information to the CEO of the company, this information will be first received and read by the immediate superior of the employee.
Such solution brings along the risk of content depletion, while it is passed on from bottom to top, as well as enriching the content if the information is transferred in the top-bottom direction. This so happens, since the manager passes only the information they deem necessary.
On the other hand, if the information is transferred downwards, they would often attach additional instructions of how to perform the task. Therefore, in the linear structure, one should reduce situations when the message needs to go through many levels Organizational structures classification Rigid classic division Linear structure Flexible modern division Divisionalized structures Functional structure http: Subject-oriented structures line-staff structure Task-oriented structures Figure 5.
The division of organizational structures of enterprises Source: Own study The advantages of line management structure include: Linear management structure example Source:
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