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Formosan termite colonies are bigger than native colonies -- Formosan queens lay thousands of eggs every day, and a colony can include millions of workers. The nominate or originally described subspecies breeds from southeastern Alaska and southern Canada to Mexico. There are multiple responses to predation , ranging from calling to the "ungulate display", which can be fatal for the performing individual. International Union for Conservation of Nature. After hatching, reactions decrease in intensity, until a normal response is calling.


This treatment usually offers protection against termites for at least five years. Builders can also construct houses in a manner that deters termites from entering.

This basically involves making sure wood doesn't come into direct contact with soil. Other techniques include placing a moisture barrier under basements to help keep the area dry and removing piles of soil from under porches. A termite inspection is usually part of the home-buying process, which reduces your likelihood of buying a home that is already infested.

These steps don't guarantee that a home will never experience an infestation. Next, we'll explore how to detect the presence of termites. In some parts of the country, they have attained notoriety that compares to Africanized bees. Formosan termite colonies are bigger than native colonies -- Formosan queens lay thousands of eggs every day, and a colony can include millions of workers.

The invasive species is more aggressive than their native counterparts, and there are more soldiers in each colony. In addition, Formosan termites will test termite barriers in an attempt to find their way through, much like the velociraptors in "Jurassic Park.

Termites eat dead wood. It primarily forages during the day; but, in the non-breeding season, when the moon is full or close to full, it forages at night. This is likely because of increased insect abundance and reduced predation during the night.

Predators of the killdeer include various birds and mammals. There are multiple responses to predation , ranging from calling to the "ungulate display", which can be fatal for the performing individual. However, its population is declining, but this trend is not severe enough for the killdeer to be considered a vulnerable species. The killdeer was described in by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae as Charadrius vociferus , [2] its current scientific name.

This word derives from the Ancient Greek kharadrios , a bird found in ravines and river valleys kharadra , "ravine". The specific name vociferus is Latin , coming from vox , "cry", and ferre , "to bear". The killdeer's common name comes from its frequently heard call. The killdeer is a large plover, with adults ranging in length from 20 to 28 centimetres 7. Its upperparts are mostly brown with rufous fringes, [3] its cap, back, and wings being the former colour.

It has a white forehead and a white stripe behind the eye, and its lores and the upper borders to the white forehead are black. The killdeer also has a white collar with a black upper border. The rest of the face is brown.

The breast and belly are white, with the exception of two black breast bands. It is the only plover in North America with two breast bands. The rump is red, and the tail is mostly brown.

The latter also has a black subterminal band, a white terminal band, and barred white feathers on the outer portion of the tail. In flight, a white wing stripe at the base of the flight feathers is visible. The female's mask and breast bands tend to be browner than those of the male.

The adult of the subspecies Charadrius vociferus ternominatus is smaller and paler and greyer than the nominate, and the subspecies C. Their underparts, forehead, neck, and chin are white, [3] and they have a single band across their breast. The killdeer is a vocal species, calling even at night. Its calls include nasal notes, like "deee", "tyeeee", and "kil-deee" the basis of its common name. During display flights, it repeats a call of "kil-deer" or "kee-deeyu".

When this plover is disturbed, it emits notes in a rapid sequence, such as "kee-di-di-di". Its alarm call is a long, fast trill. The nominate subspecies of the killdeer breeds in the US including southeastern Alaska , southern Canada, and Mexico, with less widespread grounds further south, to Panama. Some northern populations are migratory. This bird is resident in the southern half of its breeding range, [9] found throughout the year in most of the contiguous United States.

The subspecies Charadrius vociferus ternominatus is thought to be resident in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles , and Virgin Islands. The killdeer uses beach habitats and coastal wetlands and fields during the non-breeding season.

The killdeer forms pairs on its breeding grounds right after arriving. The male also advertises by calling from a high spot, [17] scraping out a dummy nest, [18] and with killdeer flights, where it flies with slow wingbeats across its territory. Ground chases occur when a killdeer has been approached multiple times by another killdeer; similarly, flight chases occur when an individual has been approached from the air. Both are forms of territorial defence.

The killdeer nests in open fields or other flat areas with short vegetation usually below 1 centimetre 0. The male seems to usually renest in the same area regardless of whether or not it retains the same mate. This does not appear to be true of the female, which has been observed to not use the same territory if it does not have the same mate. The latter function also had some support, as the plovers generally chose pebbles closer in colour to the eggs; however, nests that contrasted more with the ground suffered more predation.

The eggs of the killdeer are typically laid from mid-March to early June in the southern portion of the range, and from mid-April to mid-July in the northern part. The killdeer lays a clutch of four to six eggs that are buff to beige in colour, with brown markings and black speckles.

The eggs are about 38 by 27 millimetres 1. This latter fact is likely due to the male's increased investment in nest-site defence. After they hatch, both parents lead them out of the nest, generally to a feeding territory with dense vegetation the chicks can hide under when a predator is near.

Periods of attentiveness for each parent generally last from about one to one and a half hours. When the chicks are young, this is mainly spent standing; as the chicks get older, less time is dedicated to standing.

When the young are below two weeks of age, the attending adult spends little time feeding; foraging time increases as the chicks grow. The non-attentive adult defends the young most of the time when they are less than a week old, but this task steadily shifts onto the attentive adult, until about three weeks of age, when the attending parent does almost all of the defence.

One parent at a time broods the chicks, and does so frequently until they are two days old. The young are brooded during rain until about 15 days after hatching and during night for about 18 days after hatching. The only time when they are not in the presence of a parent is when the parents are mating or responding to a predator or aggressive conspecific. When a pair has two broods, the second is usually attended by just the male who is able to hatch the eggs on his own, unlike the female [25].

In this case, the male does not spend most of the time standing; the amount of time it does stand, though, stays constant as the chicks age. Like attentive adults in two parent broods, the sole parent increases the time spent foraging as the young age.

The young fledge about 31 days after hatching, and generally move to moister areas in valleys and on the banks of rivers. They may be cared for by their parents for up to 10 days after they fledge, and exceptionally for 81 days after hatching.

Breeding starts after one year of age. The killdeer feeds primarily on insects especially beetles and flies , in addition to millipedes, worms, snails, spiders, and some seeds.

It opportunistically takes tree frogs and dead minnows. Standing water alone does not have a significant effect on field choice unless combined with cattle. The killdeer uses visual cues to forage. An example of this is "foot-trembling", [31] where it stands on one foot, shaking the other in shallow water for about five seconds, pecking at any prey stirred up.

The former feeds the most before and during egg-laying, the least when incubation starts as there is little time to feed , with a return to high levels after. When the moon is full, it feeds more at night and roosts more during the day. Foraging at night has benefits for this bird, including increased insect abundance and reduced predation. The killdeer is parasitized by acanthocephalans , cestodes , nematodes , and trematodes. Predation is not limited to eggs and chicks: The parents use various methods to distract predators during the breeding season.

One method is the "broken-wing display", [35] also known as "injury feigning". When the bird has the attention of the predator, the former turns its tail towards the latter, displaying the threatening orange colour of the rump.

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