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Please select the relevant order and then follow the instructions on the complaints form.
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Your name, is always automatically added onto the shipping label. Unfortunately we do not have the administrative capability to edit and remove items from an order once it has been submitted. Therefore, we kindly ask you to place a new order and create a return for the order you would like to modify. Our system is set up in a way that allows fast processing and delivery times.
Therefore we are not able to merge orders into one parcel. As long as the order is still in progress, you can easily cancel: If this function is missing, the cancellation is no longer possible. Once you have cancelled the order, we will confirm by e-mail. If you have used vouchers, they will automatically be deposited back into your account after repayment. We do not offer an exchange service as our items are limited in availability.
You can create a return label and send the item back to us. We will try to process your refund as soon as possible. However, in case you need a different size, you can place a new order. Due to licence restrictions we do not support cross border shipping. Consequently we only ship to your country of registration.
After processing the return, the voucher will be reassigned to you again in your account under Vouchers. Please note, this does not include discount vouchers. Discount vouchers cannot be re-issued or be converted into a gift voucher. Please keep in mind, that some type of vouchers may only be valid for a certain period of time and bound to a minimum turnover. Vouchers have to be redeemed during your order process.
After you have ordered we are not able to deduct the voucher for you manually. In this case, you can return the items within 14 days. Returning an item is very simple. Under "Orders and Returns" you can click on "Create return" in order to set up a return. After creation you can easily print the return slip and the return-shipping label. Returns are free of charge.
In order to ensure rapid processing of your returns, we request that returns from different orders are always sent separately and returned to us with the corresponding withdrawal form and return label. The value of the returned items will be credited to your selected method of payment. The processing time depends on your bank.
However, you should expect an approximate processing time of up to 2 weeks. Currently, we are working on a solution, which will allow reimbursement immediately after receipt of shipment.
Once your return is processed, you will be notified by email. By then the amount will be paid out in our next payment run. Repayment is always made to the method chosen for the original payment. We apologise for any inconvenience caused. Please select the relevant order and then follow the instructions on the complaints form.
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Es ist klein, kompackt und sehr leicht und daher ideal zum Transport geeignet. Das Set nimmt wirklich sehr wenig Platz ein und kann in einem mitgelieferten Netzbeutel aufbewahrt werden. Die Verarbeitung ist gut und die Griffe sind stabiel und wertig.
Wer viel mit dem Motorrad auf langen Touren oder anderweitig viel in der Natur unterwegs ist braucht was zu essen. A similar methodology was studied with I. The method was considered more accurate than the scutal index for attachment times up to 12 hours, and the scutal index more accurate with longer attachment times, though the method predicted times from near 11 hours up to 30 hours for attachment times of 24 hours with nymphal ticks, and with similar results for adults.
This poor correlation indicates that neither the scutal index nor the coxal index is useful as a risk indicator. Some cases where there is strong evidence of early transmission have been published.
Although attachment time was not accurately determined they do give evidence to support early infection. The claims that removal of ticks within 24 hours or 48 hours of attachment will effectively prevent LB are not supported by the published data, and the minimum tick attachment time for transmission of LB in humans has never been established.
The animal studies, however, did not comprehend significant variables such as the presence of spirochetes within the salivary glands at the start of feeding, nor the effect of delayed attachment once a tick adheres to a host. Both of these will reduce the time for infectious spirochetes to invade the host compared to the model that requires a change from dormancy to active migration from the midgut to the salivary glands and then to the host.
Also, co-feeding and partial feeding of ticks with displacement from companion animals to humans must be considered a factor for rapid transmission of LD. Though the risk of a single occurrence may be small, this is compounded by the possibility of decades of recreation and lifestyle behavior, especially with companion animals or employment in forestry work and farming.
There is evidence that the risk of LB increases with longer tick attachment time, and the advice to remove a tick quickly is sound.
However, there are practical problems identifying attached ticks quickly. The size of ticks at all stages of their life cycle makes them difficult to detect even on exposed skin and nearly impossible in areas where there is limited visibility and within the hairline. The painless bite and histamine suppression ensure that many victims are unaware of the tick bite.
At clinical presentation it will not normally be possible to determine the attachment time and as discussed this is not the only contributor to infection. Tick and Borrelia species are also determining factors with evidence of faster transmission for European strains.
Additionally ticks carry many other diseases including tick-borne encephalitis, human granular ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and others. The attachment times for transmission of many of these are unknown, though there is evidence that some are transmitted very quickly. Therefore, LB infection can never be excluded after a tick bite irrespective of the estimated duration of attachment time.
I would like to thank PK Puri, Imperial College, London, for his support and encouragement and final review, and Dr Victoria Cairns, Oxford, for her proof reading and suggestions with the early version of the manuscript, and to the three reviewers for their encouragement and valuable suggestions.
The author has no financial competing interests. The author was diagnosed with Lyme disease in National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Gen Med. Published online Dec Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Independent researcher, Dorset, UK. The full terms of the License are available at http: Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Lyme borreliosis is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world and is the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and the USA. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , disease transmission, tick-borne disease, Lyme disease, tick attachment. The disease Lyme borreliosis LB is a multisystemic disease that can affect many organs, including the heart, joints, central nervous system, and brain, and can result in a large number of diverse symptoms including extreme fatigue, flu-like symptoms, arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive dysfunction.
Incidence In Europe, few countries have made LB a notifiable disease, and lack of standards and changes in reporting and testing methodologies have made it difficult to obtain reliable incidence data.
Attachment time and transmission risk It is commonly stated in health agency guidelines and the general media that the risk of LB increases with length of time a tick is attached.
Tick feeding mechanisms Ixodes ticks have three feeding stages in their life cycle and take a blood meal at each. Attachment time experiments In a paper, Piesman et al published data from an animal model study of the time for B.
Open in a separate window. Virulence, infectivity, and outer surface proteins There is evidence that spirochetes residing in the salivary glands are far more infective than those residing in the midgut. Estimating attachment times in humans In the case of animal experiments, it is possible to clearly define the moment of tick attachment, but it is seldom possible in the case of human tick bites.
Conclusion The claims that removal of ticks within 24 hours or 48 hours of attachment will effectively prevent LB are not supported by the published data, and the minimum tick attachment time for transmission of LB in humans has never been established.
Acknowledgments I would like to thank PK Puri, Imperial College, London, for his support and encouragement and final review, and Dr Victoria Cairns, Oxford, for her proof reading and suggestions with the early version of the manuscript, and to the three reviewers for their encouragement and valuable suggestions.
Footnotes Disclosure The author has no financial competing interests. Lyme disease — a tick-borne spirochetosis? Ein Fall von diffuser idiopathischer Hautatrophie [A case of diffuse idiopathic skin atrophy] Vjschr Derm. Multilocus sequence analysis of Borrelia bissettii strains from North America reveals a new Borrelia species, Borrelia kurtenbachii. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Updates on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex with respect to public health.
Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. Int J Syst Bacteriol. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England. Density of questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adults infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Switzerland: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. The composition and transmission of microbiome in hard tick, Ixodes persulcatus , during blood meal.
Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. Chronic Lyme disease and co-infections: Broad-range survey of tick-borne pathogens in southern Germany reveals a high prevalence of Babesia microti and a diversity of other tick-borne pathogens.
Species co-occurrence patterns among Lyme borreliosis pathogens in the tick vector Ixodes ricinus. Evolving perspectives on Lyme borreliosis in Canada. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Lyme Borreliosis in Europe: World Health Organization; Evaluating frequency, diagnostic quality, and cost of Lyme borreliosis testing in Germany: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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